Advanced topic!

This API doc covers reactive state (mo.state), an advanced topic.

You likely don’t need reactive state. UI elements already have built-in state, their associated value, which you can access with their value attribute. For example, mo.ui.slider() has a value that is its current position on an interval, while mo.ui.button() has a value that can be configured to count the number of times it has been clicked, or to toggle between True and False. Additionally, interacting with UI elements bound to global variables automatically executes cells that reference those variables, letting you react to changes by just reading their value attributes. This functional paradigm is the preferred way of reacting to UI interactions in marimo. So if you think you need to use mo.state, make sure to first read the guide on interactivity. Chances are, the reactive execution built into UI elements will suffice. (For example, you don’t need reactive state to handle a button click.)

That said, here are some signs you might need mo.state:

  • you need to maintain historical state related to a UI element that can’t be computed from its built-in value (e.g., all values the user has ever input into a form)

  • you need to synchronize two different UI elements (e.g., so that interacting with either one controls the other)

  • you need to introduce cycles across cells

If one of these cases applies to you, then read on. mo.state lets you make all kinds of interesting applications, but like mutable state in general, it can complicate notebook development and has the potential to introduce hard-to-find bugs.

marimo.state(value: T, allow_self_loops: bool = False) tuple[marimo._runtime.state.State[T], Callable[[T], NoneType]]

Mutable reactive state

This function takes an initial value and returns:

  • a getter function that reads the state value

  • a setter function to set the state’s value

When you call the setter function and update the state value in one cell, all other cells that read any global variables assigned to the getter will automatically run. By default, the cell that called the setter function won’t be re-run, even if it references the getter; to allow a state setter to possibly run the caller cell, use the keyword argument allow_self_loops=True.

You can use this function in conjunction with UIElement on_change handlers to trigger side-effects when an element’s value is updated. For example, you can tie multiple UI elements to derive their values from shared state.

Basic Usage.

Create state:

get_count, set_count = mo.state(0)

Read the value:


Update the state:


Update the state based on the current value:

set_count(lambda value: value + 1)

Note: Never mutate the state directly. You should only change its value through its setter.

Synchronizing multiple UI elements.

get_state, set_state = mo.state(0)
# updating the state through the slider will recreate the number (below)
slider = mo.ui.slider(0, 100, value=get_state(), on_change=set_state)
# updating the state through the number will recreate the slider (above)
number = mo.ui.number(0, 100, value=get_state(), on_change=set_state)
# slider and number are synchronized to have the same value (try it!)
[slider, number]

Warning. Do not store marimo.ui elements in state; doing so can lead to hard-to-diagnose bugs.


  • value: initial value of the state

  • allow_self_loops: if True, if a cell calls a state setter and also references its getter, the caller cell will be re-run; defaults to False.


  • getter function that retrieves the state value

  • setter function that takes a new value, or a function taking the current value as its argument and returning a new value